1. Who was Cyrus? Over what territory was he sovereign?


2. Why was Croesus concerned about Cyrus?


3. Why did Croesus consult the oracles (fortune telling mystics) the first time? What did he plan to ask after the first test?


4. Which oraclular statement seemed to be most authentic to Croesus?


5. Explain how the oracular response fit with what Croesus had done as a preliminary test.


6. What did Croesus do following the positive test to gain favour from the oracle?


7. What two questions did Croesus ask of the oracle?


8. What was the oracle's riddled response?


9. What was Croesus' third question for the oracles?


10. What was the oracular response, and why did it make Croesus happy?


11. What did Croesus decide to do after the third oracular response?


12. What did Sandanis think about Croesus' plans? Why?


13. What geographic form marks the boundary of the Lydian (Croesus') and the Persian/Median (Cyrus') empire?


14. What did Croesus do when he approached the Halys River?


15. What did Croesus do while marching through Syria en route to fight Cyrus?


16. Who won the first exchange of battle between the armies of Cyrus and Croesus at Pteria?


17. What did Croesus decide to do because of this?


18. When did Croesus plan to attack Cyrus again? What did Croesus do with his reinforcements in the mean time, having returned home to Sardis?


19. What did he suppose that Cyrus would never do?


20. What strange thing did Croesus see while his was strategizing?


21. Explain how this thing was interpreted by Croesus' advisors in Telmessus.


22. What was Cyrus' plan after the initial battle with Croesus? Why?


23. Why was Croesus in "a very difficult position"?


24. Describe how Cyrus marshalled his armies.


25. Why did Cyrus arrange his forces so strangely?


26. What was the result of the battle?


27. After Croesus and his army fled into the walled city of Sardis, what did Hyroeades see that enabled Cyrus to lay seige to the town successfully?


28. Who saved Croesus' life? What was amazing about this?


29. Explain the irony in the oracle's prediction?