Locators in Time and Place
A preposition describes a relationship between other words in a sentence. In itself, a word like "in" or "after" is rather meaningless and hard to define in mere words. For instance, when you do try to define a preposition like "in" or "between" or "on," you invariably use your hands to show how something is situated in relationship to something else. Prepositions are nearly always combined with other words in structures called prepositional phrases. Prepositional phrases can be made up of a million different words, but they tend to be built the same: a preposition followed by a determiner and an adjective or two, followed by a pronoun or noun (called the object of the preposition). This whole phrase, in turn, takes on a modifying role, acting as an adjective or an adverb, locating something in time and space, modifying a noun, or telling when or where or under what conditions something happened. Consider the professor's desk and all the prepositional phrases we can use while talking about it.
You can sit before the desk (or in front of the desk). The professor can sit on the desk (when he's being informal) or behind the desk, and then his feet are under the desk or beneath the desk. He can stand beside the desk (meaning next to the desk), before the desk, between the desk and you, or even on the desk (if he's really strange). If he's clumsy, he can bump into the desk or try to walk through the desk (and stuff would fall off the desk). Passing his hands over the desk or resting his elbows upon the desk, he often looks across the desk and speaks of the desk or concerning the desk as if there were nothing else like the desk. Because he thinks of nothing except the desk, sometimes you wonder about the desk, what's in the desk, what he paid for the desk, and if he could live without the desk. You can walk toward the desk, to the desk, around the desk, by the desk, and even past the desk while he sits at the desk or leans against the desk.
All of this happens, of course, in time: during the class, before the class, until the class, throughout the class, after the class, etc. And the professor can sit there in a bad mood [another adverbial construction].
Those words in bold font are all prepositions. Some prepositions do other things besides locate in space or time — "My brother is like my father." "Everyone in the class except me got the answer." — but nearly all of them modify in one way or another. It is possible for a preposition phrase to act as a noun — "During a church service is not a good time to discuss picnic plans" or "In the South Pacific is where I long to be" — but this is seldom appropriate in formal or academic writing.
You may have learned that ending a sentence with a preposition is a serious breach of grammatical etiquette. It doesn't take a grammarian to spot a sentence-ending preposition, so this is an easy rule to get caught up on (!). Although it is often easy to remedy the offending preposition, sometimes it isn't, and repair efforts sometimes result in a clumsy sentence. "Indicate the book you are quoting from" is not greatly improved with "Indicate from which book you are quoting." Based on shaky historical precedent, the rule itself is a latecomer to the rules of writing. Those who dislike the rule are fond of recalling Churchill's rejoinder: "That is nonsense up with which I shall not put." We should also remember the child's complaint: "What did you bring that book that I don't like to be read to out of up for?"
Prepositions of Time: at, on, and in
We use at to designate specific
The train is due at
We use on to designate days and
My brother is coming on Monday.
We're having a party on the Fourth of July.
We use in
for non-specific times during a day, a month, a season, or a year.
She likes to jog in the morning.
It's too cold in winter to run outside.
He started the job in 1971.
He's going to quit in August.
Prepositions of Place: at, on, and in
We use at
for specific addresses.
Jimmy Dent lives at
We use on
to designate names of streets, avenues, etc.
Her house is on
And we use in for the names of land-areas (towns, counties, states, countries, and continents).
She lives in
of Location: in, at, and on
* You may sometimes use different prepositions for these locations.
Prepositions of Movement: to and No Preposition
We use to
in order to express movement toward a place.
They were driving to work together.
She's going to the dentist's office this morning.
Toward and towards are also
helpful prepositions to express movement. These are simply variant spellings of
the same word; use whichever sounds better to you.
We're moving toward the light.
This is a big step towards the project's completion.
the words home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs,
we use no preposition.
Grandma went upstairs
Grandpa went home.
They both went outside.
Prepositions of Time: for and since
We use for
when we measure time (seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years).
He held his breath for seven minutes.
She's lived there for seven years.
The British and Irish have been quarrelling for seven centuries.
We use since
with a specific date or time.
He's worked here since 1970.
She's been sitting in the waiting room since two-thirty.
Prepositions with Nouns, Adjectives, and Verbs.
Prepositions are sometimes so firmly wedded to other words that they have practically become one word. (In fact, in other languages, such as German, they would have become one word.) This occurs in three categories: nouns, adjectives, and verbs.
NOUNS and PREPOSITIONS
ADJECTIVES and PREPOSITIONS
VERBS and PREPOSITIONS
A combination of verb and preposition is called a phrasal verb. The word that is joined to the verb is then called a particle.
Idiomatic Expressions with Prepositions
In everyday speech, we fall into some bad habits, using prepositions where they are not necessary. It would be a good idea to eliminate these words altogether, but we must be especially careful not to use them in formal, academic prose.
up with the new coach in the
The book fell off
of the desk.
He threw the book out
of the window.
She wouldn't let the cat inside
the house. [or use "in"]
Where did they go
Put the lamp in back of the couch. [use "behind" instead]
Where is your college
Prepositions in Parallel Form
When two words or phrases are used in
parallel and require the same preposition to be idiomatically correct, the
preposition does not have to be used twice.
You can wear that outfit in summer and
The female was both attracted
by and distracted by the male's dance.
However, when the idiomatic use of phrases
calls for different prepositions, we must be careful not to omit one of them.
The children were interested in and disgusted by the movie.
It was clear that this player could both contribute to and learn from every game he played.
He was fascinated by and enamoured of this beguiling woman.
Answer the following review questions regarding prepositions:
1. What is a preposition?
2. What is the rule concerning ending sentences with prepositions? Must this rule be followed always?
3. Provide an original example of a sentence that ends with a preposition. Re-write this sentence so that it does not end with a preposition, but retains the same meaning.
4. Edit the following sentences, omitting all unnecessary prepositions:
(i) Call up and see whether she came in today.
(ii) I cannot face up to this problem.
(iii) Try this new garlic dip out.
(iv) Heat the soup up.
(v) She will not stand for shoddy work.
(vi) Up until then, she was ready to bolt out of the window.
(vii) Open up the door later on and let me enter.
(viii) Lie down or else you'll be beaten up!
(ix) I'd like to exchange back this pair of sneakers.
The following paragraph is taken from Ernest Hemingway's short story "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Underline the prepositions.
Francis Macomber had, half an hour before, been carried to his tent from the edge of the camp in triumph on the arms and shoulders of the cook, the personal boys, the skinner and the porters. The gun-bearers had taken no part in the demonstration. When the native boys put him down at the door of his tent, he had shaken all their hands, received their congratulations, and then gone into the tent and sat on the bed until his wife came in. She did not speak to him when she came in and he left the tent at once to wash his face and hands in the portable wash basin outside and go over to the dining tent to sit in a comfortable canvas chair in the breeze and the shade.